Operando x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy for studying forward and reverse biased silicon p-n junctions.

Result date: 01/01/2016
Author: N. Barrett
Institute: SPEC, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
Publication: Rev. Sci. Instrum.
Instrument: NanoESCA
Significant progress in the understanding of surfaces and interfaces of materials for new technologies requires operando studies, i.e., measurement of chemical, electronic, and magnetic properties under external stimulus (such as mechanical strain, optical illumination, or electric fields) applied in situ in order to approach real operating conditions. Electron microscopy attracts much interest, thanks to its ability to determine semiconductor doping at various scales in devices. Spectroscopic photoelectron emission microscopy(PEEM) is particularly powerful since it combines high spatial and energy resolution, allowing a comprehensive analysis of local work function, chemistry, and electronic structure using secondary, core level, and valence band electrons, respectively. Here we present the first operando spectroscopic PEEM study of a planar Si p-n junction under forward and reverse bias. The method can be used to characterize a vast range of materials at near device scales such as resistive oxides, conducting bridge memories and domain wall arrays in ferroelectrics photovoltaic devices.